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VISUAL IMPAIRMENT


"Visual impairment including blindness" means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness. This impairment refers to abnormality of the eyes, the optic nerve or the visual center for the brain resulting in decreased visual acuity.

Students with visual impairments are identified as those with a corrected visual acuity of 20/70 or less in the better eye or field restriction of less that 20 degrees at its widest point or identified as cortically visually impaired and functioning at the definition of legal blindness.

POSSIBLE REFERRAL CHARACTERISTICS

  1. Intellectual
    • Shows approximately the same distribution of scores on intellectual tests as sighted individuals, when tests such as auditory-vocal or haptic-motor channels of communication are used
  2. Achievement
    • Has relatively normal educational achievement
    • Tends to achieve more poorly in subjects such as mathematics
  3. Behavioral
    • Appears "clumsy," especially in a new situation
    • Holds head in an awkward position to look at something or holds a book or other objects in a peculiar position to look at them
    • "Tunes out" when information is on the chalkboard or in a book which the student cannot read
    • Constantly asks a neighbor to tell him/her what is going on
    • Shows signs of fatigue or inattentiveness
    • Exhibits poor self-concept and ego development
  4. Communicative Abilities
    • Less effective use of gesture and bodily action
    • Uses less lip movement in the articulation of sounds
  5. Physical
    1. Behavior
      • Rubs eyes excessively
      • Shuts or covers one eye, tilts head or thrusts head forward
      • Has difficulty in reading or in other work requiring close use of the eyes
      • Blinks more than usual or is irritable when doing close work
      • Holds books close to eyes
      • Is unable to see distant things clearly
      • Squints eyelids together or frowns
    2. Appearance
      • Crossed eyes
      • Inflamed or watery eyes
      • Recurring styes
    3. Complaints
      • Eyes itch, burn or feel scratchy
      • Cannot see well
      • Dizziness, headaches, or nausea following close eye work
      • Blurred or double vision

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Gyan